** This online streaming event has ended. This page archives documentation of the event and related programs. **

In conjunction with the event “LIFE WITH VIRUS”: Teiji Furuhashi in New York, Visual AIDS and Normal Screen hosted a special streaming presentation of Dumb Type’s 1994 performance S/N from April 26 to May 9, 2021.

Founded in 1984 by fifteen art students working in Kyoto, Dumb Type’s experimental theater projects combine dance and performance with ambitious multimedia installations. Teiji Furuhashi (1960–1995), a central figure in the group, came out as HIV positive to his collaborators in 1992, prompting the collective to produce a major performance piece responding to the AIDS crisis. The resulting work, S/N, used the notion of a “signal to noise” ratio as a structuring metaphor, challenging Japan’s silence about AIDS with explicit discussion of gay identity, stigma, sex work, and border politics.

Incorporating a two-level set, elaborate choreography, live video, and projection, the performance was critically acclaimed and toured to more than twenty cities around the world. Though Dumb Type hoped to perform S/N in New York, only one venue in Seattle was willing to present the piece in the United States. This is the first time that documentation of the performance has been presented online.


To introduce S/N, Akiko Mizoguchi reflected on the performance’s nuanced consideration of sexuality and its impact on her own identity and study. Akiko Mizoguchi is a queer visual culture theorist based in Yokohama, Japan. Her award-winning Japanese-language books Theorizing BL As a Transformative Genre and its Dialogue Edition have been translated into Chinese and Korean.

Note: Akiko Mizoguchi’s video introduction is no longer available to the public. If you would like to request a private screening link, please contact Kyle Croft, Visual AIDS Programs Director at kcroft@visualaids.org.

On April 30, 2021, Visual AIDS and Sho Akita hosted an online conversation about the work and activism of Teiji Furuhashi. This program brought together friends of  Furuhashi from Japan and the US to shed light on the cultural exchange that he facilitated between New York and Kyoto. Participants included the renowned artist and sex worker advocate Bubu de la Madeleine, composer Toru Yamanaka (aka DJ Lala), and the curator Barbara London, who acquired Furuhashi’s work for the Museum of Modern Art. Japanese-English interpretation provided by Stacy Smith.

Teiji Furuhashi (1960–1995)

Teiji Furuhashi was an influential Japanese media artist, well known as a founding member of the artist collective Dumb Type. Furuhashi was born in Kyoto and became involved with the arts from a young age. His father was a nihon-ga painter and kimono designer, and his grandmother ran a geisha house, but Furuhashi gravitated toward music, performing as a drummer in several rock bands in his youth.

In 1984, Furuhashi started Dumb Type with a dozen of his classmates at Kyoto City University of the Arts. “Our idea was to combine everything,” he later reflected, “film, people, painting, sculpture, music—so it became like theater. We named it Dumb Type because we didn’t want to use any dialogue in our performance… We doubted words were the main form of interpersonal communication, and we wanted to explore deeper levels.”

Dumb Type quickly garnered attention for their innovative use of media and new technology. Their experimental theater projects combined dance and performance with ambitious multimedia installations, exploring the changing nature of everyday life amidst the economic growth of Japan in the 1980s and the rise of digital technology. Performances like Pleasure Life (1988) and pH (1990) pitted performers’ bodies against elaborate mechanical sets. These projects toured internationally, both as live performances and as sculptural installations exhibited in galleries.

In the mid-1980s, Furuhashi spent several months living in New York, becoming part of the burgeoning East Village nightlife scene and performing with a friend as the “Kookie Kabuki Sisters” at the Pyramid Club. Furuhashi brought his drag performances back to Japan, infusing the ethos of downtown New York into his monthly drag party, “Diamonds Are Forever,” which continues to this day.

In 1992, Furuhashi wrote a letter to his friends and collaborators to announce that he was living with HIV. At the time, there was very little public conversation about AIDS in Japan, and Furuhashi eventually became one of the first to publicly share his HIV status in the country. His letter prompted Dumb Type to produce a major performance confronting the AIDS epidemic. The resulting work, S/N (1994) was developed through workshops with local activists and challenged Japan’s silence about AIDS with explicit discussion of gay identity, stigma, sex work, and border politics. In July 2021, Visual AIDS published the first English translation of Furuhashi’s coming out letter, available here.

As Furuhashi continued to spend time in New York, he facilitated connections between activists and artists in the United States and Japan. For the 1994 International AIDS Conference in Yokohama, Furuhashi worked with Visual AIDS to bring the public slideshow project Electric Blanket to Japan, where it was presented as part of an outdoor party called the Love Ball.

While working with Dumb Type, Furuhashi also made his own artwork. In 1985, his video Conversation Styles won first prize at the Tokyo International Video Biennale and was later acquired by Barbara London for the Museum of Modern Art. In 1994, he produced Lovers, an immersive, room-sized video installation in collaboration with Canon ArtLAB. Life-size projections of Furuhashi and other members of Dumb Type float through the room, at times overlapping or embracing each other, but ultimately dissolving into darkness. Lovers was included in the 1995 exhibition Video Spaces at MoMA just before Furuhashi died of an AIDS-related illness on October 29, 1995.

Documentation of Lovers by Canon ARTLAB. Video courtesy of Yukiko Shikata

Visual AIDS’ International Curatorial Residency, developed in partnership with Residency Unlimited, encourages the development of exhibitions, programs, and scholarship about HIV and contemporary art by inviting a curator, art historian, or arts writer from outside of the United States to research in New York. Visual AIDS utilizes art to fight AIDS by provoking dialogue, supporting HIV+ artists, and preserving a legacy, because AIDS is not over. ︎︎︎︎

This program is supported in part by a grant from the Japan Foundation, New York. Visual AIDS thanks Dumb Type and Normal Screen for making this screening possible. Credits: (Poster) Photograph by Yoko Takatani, Design by Zhile Xie; (S/N Thumbnail) Photograph by Kazuo Fukunaga.